1. Bony fish drink a lot of seawater to say hydrated and excrete the concentrated salts through the gills and gut. With cartilaginous fish, they are expected over the gills, within urine, and rectal gland.
2. Cartilaginous fish are slow reproducing, and bony fish are fast reproducers.
3. Some sharks grasp the females pectoral fins, or bite and hold onto the body.
1. What makes cartilaginous fish different from other fish? Give examples.
Skeletons made of cartilage, an example is the heart and blood.
2. List examples of cartilaginous fish.
Skates, Chimaeras, rays, bull sharks, banjo shark.
3. What is special about the sharks eye?
They have muscles that cal roll the eye back into the socket for protection.
4. What are the differences between bony fish and cartilaginous fish:
a. Heart and Blood - Sharks have fewer red blood cells, Bony fish have a bone marrow for hemopoiesis.
b. External features - Shark skin is covered by dermal denticles. Bony fish are covered in flat scales.
c. Digesting and Evacuation - Bony fish have two seperate openings, a rectum and an anus. Sharks kidneys & genitals empty into only one opening called the cloaca.
1. What are examples of marine arthropods?
There are crustacea, Pycnogonida also called "sea spiders," and Merostomata also called "horseshoe crabs."
2. What's the difference between an arthropods skeleton and a human's?
An arthropod's skeleton is on the outside and it protects them. The muscles of an arthropod are connected to the inside of the exoskeleton.
3. Compare/Contrast how arthropod's and humans move blood in their circulatory systems.
Arthropods have an open circulatory system, which means they have no arteries, veins or capillaries to carry blood. Instead, blood is pumped through sinuses within the animal to reach the tissues.
4. How do the eyes of arthropods differ from your eyes?
Arthropods have compound eyes. Each eye is composed of many smaller light-sensitive organs, called ommatidia. Together they form a single working eye.
5. How do humans use marine arthropods?
We eat marine arthropods.
"When something is taken from you, it is horrible, but trust it is God's will and something else will replace it."
This quote is related to the sea star because when one of a sea stars arms is removed it will eventually grow back and be as good as new. The sea star represents what a person should believe when they are facing difficult times, the sea star can help us lear a little more about ourselves.
1. a) Phylum Poriferia-the sponges
b) Phylum Coelenterata- Jelly fish
c) Phylum Platyhelmin thes- the flat worms
d) Phylum Nematoda- the roundworms
e) Phylum Annelida- the segmented worms: leech
f) Phylum Arthropoda- the anthropods: spiders
g) Phylum Mollusca- the mollusks: snails
h) Phylum echinoder mata- the echinoderms: seastars
i) Phylum chordata- the chordates: fish
2. What types of habitat can the species be found in? & how does species digest food?
a)marine/ holes, passes through its holes
b) marine/ eats through its anus
c) fresh salt/ passes through its holes
d) fresh salt/ passes through its holes
e) fresh salt/ passes through its holes
f) all/ passes through its holes
g) marine & fresh/ passes through its holes
h) marine/ passes through its holes
i) marine, fresh, terrestrial/ passes through its holes
4. Have you seen an example of a species in a phyla?
The BIG QUESTION?
Why should we humans be concerned about overfishing?
Because valuable fish stocks, as well as a whole host of other marine life, are severely threatened by overfishing.
1. What are the "Big Five" fish we eat all the time?
The Big Five fish are: Cod, haddock, tuna, salmon, & prawns.
2. What is a reason for not eating sharks or other deep water fish?
They tend to be slow growing, long-lived species like redfish and orange roughy, which breed slowly and are therefore vulnerable to over-exploitation.
3. What are some "fish to eat," "fish to eat occasionally," and "fish to avoid?"
Fish to eat include fish like cockle, anchovy, Arctic char, halibut, and pangasius. Fish to occasionally are fish such as flounder, grey mullet, haddock, white marlin, and plaice. Fish to avoid are fish such as prawn (wild caught), salmon, scampi, seabass, sturgeon, and caviar.
1. When light has low rates it then leads to low nutrients, it affect the amount of trophic levels in the ecosystem.
2. The amount of energy entering the ecosystem, energy loss between trophic levels, and the form, structure, and physiology of organisms at each level affect the ability of an ecosystem to support multiple trophic levels.
3. Bioaccumulation is an important consequence of the loss of energy between trophic levels is that contaminant's collect in animal tissues. An example of DDT is DDT build up in eagles and other raptors to levels high enough to affect their reproduction, causing the birds to lay thin-shelled eggs that broke in their nests.
1. How does eelgrass density influence abundance of species in an ecosystem?
My hypothesis: The more dense the eelgrass, the more biodiverse the ecosystem because of the more availability for shelter and food.
Websites to support hypothesis:
1. San Diego Bay is home to a list of natural resources such as salt marsh and tidal flats, bird nesting and foraging sites, essential fish habitats such as eelgrass beds, and nine endangered species.
2. Invasive species are plants, animals, and microbes not native to a region which, when introduced, out-compete native species for available resources. Some were transported to SD Bay in ballast water of international ships, attached to boat hulls, sometimes they were introduced intentionally for fishing.
3. An endangered species is a species in danger of becoming extinct, not existing. Green turtles are an endangered species of SD Bay, and the marine turtle research program attempt to raise funds for the conservation of sea turtles.
1. The San Diego Bay is located in San Diego county, has 34 miles of scenic waterfronts with restaurants, shops, and attractions.
2. In the bay, you can go on cruises, visit shops and go to museums.
3. The South San Diego Bay restoration and enhancement project dredges former salt ponds to create tidal channels and tidal influence.
4. The San Diego National Wildlife Refuge Complex is located in Seal Beach, Tijuana Slough, and Sweetwater Marsh.
5. The purpose of the San Diego National Wildlife is that they support habitats as diverse as coastal marshes and uplands, oak woodlands, freshwater marshes, and resident bird species in south San Diego Bay.
1. Which is more dense: ocean water or fresh water, & why?
Ocean water is more dense that fresh water. Ocean water is more dense because of the salt in it. and the temperature, it gets more dense as temperature goes down.
2. How would global warming change water at the poles and the equator?
Warmer temperature could increase the amount of water vapor that enters the atmosphere. The result is a hotter, more humid environment. At the equator, changes are not expected to be large.
1. Thermal Inertia: San Francisco and Norfolk, Virginia are on the same latitude why would Norfold, compared to SF, have warmer summers and cooler winters? The air in San Francisco has moved over the ocean, while air in Norfolk has approached over land. Water doesn't warm as much as land in the summer, nor cool as much in winter. 2. Describe the different ways temperatures are "moderated" on Earth. Without moderate temperatures, Earth could not support life as we know it. Water vapor absorbs heat and releases it slowly. At night when the humidity is high, the atmosphere retains heat, and nighttime temperatures stay somewhat high. On dry nights, with little water vapor to absorb heat, the atmosphere cools off rapidly.
1. Describe how water molecules are bonded.
Each hydrogen nucleus is bond to the central oxygen atom by a pair of electrons that are shared between them.
2. Describe how the positive and negative charges of water are distributed.
The positive and negative charges are not distributed uniformly.
3. Describe the chemistry of water that allows an insect to walk on water.
Due to surface tension, a molecule within the bulk of a liquid experiences attractions to neighboring molecules in all directions, but since these average out to zero, there is no net force on the molecule.
4. What is unique about water and its density?
It varies depending on its state of liquid, solid, or gas.
1. What are some products that came from sediments? - Building materials for roads and structures - Toothpaste - Paint - Swimming Pool Filters 2. How much of the worlds energy comes from sediments? - 1/3 of worlds oil and gas reserves comes from deposits within the sediments of continental margins 3. How important is sand and gravel? - Sand and Gravel valued at more than $510 million Web Quest Questions 1. In what ways are sediments classified? - Classified by origin 2. List the four types of marine sediments? - Lithogenous: Derived from land - Biogenous: Derived from organisms - Hydrogenous or Authigenic: Derived from water - Cosmogenous: Derived from outer space 3. Where are sediments thickest? Are any areas of the ocean floor free of sediments? - On the continental slopes and rises - Few areas of ocean bottom are free of a sediment cover
The four possible careers in ocean science we will consider will be: deep sea biologist, geophysicist, microbiologist, deep sea ecologist.A Geophysicist studies the physical properties of the Earth and can study anything from the Earth's atmosphere to the oceans. A job in this field usually requires a graduate degree. A microbiologist studies microscopic organisms, like fungi and bacteria. They primarily work in laboratory's analyzing these microorganisms. A deep-sea biologist studies the life down in the deep oceans. Getting a job in this field just requires motivation, not much education. A deep-sea ecologist studies the ecological and evolution of communities that live on the ocean floor and they typically travel anywhere they need to to produce their research. While all these careers are fascinating, the one that interests me is becoming a Geophysicist because I like learning more about the ocean floors.
1. Typical adaptations of animals living in deep caves are: lack of pigmentation, reduction in the size of eyes, and development of sensory mechanisms that do not depend on light for detecting food or predators.
2. Oxygen is not plentiful in these caves because there is no photosynthesis and very limited water circulation in the caves. The adaptations may be behavioral, morphological, physiological, -swimming slowly. Increased size of sensory body parts and reduce energy used up by unused body parts. Low metabolic rates and accumulation of lipids which contain about twice as much energy per gram as proteins or carbohydrates.
3. Adaptations are random and if they provide an advantage, the organism is more likely to survive and reproduce than other organisms with these same adaptations.
1. NOAA: Who are they, and what do the do? - The Natural Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration, they focus on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. 2. The intensity of a sonar echo tells scientists what? - The depth of the oceans floor and the characteristics of the sea floor. 3. How does an R.O.V assist scientists? - They understand the sonar data 4. Why are these studies important to the society? - It is important to map where the animals in the ocean are and by protecting the habitat.
1.Bathymetry is the measurement of the depth of water in oceans, rivers, or lakes. Bythametric maps use line to show the shape & elevation of land features. On topographic maps, lines connect points of equal elevation & points of equal depth.
2. In ancient times, they measured the depth with a heavy rope, however they were inaccurate & incomplete.
3. Now echo sounders are used to make bathymetric measurements, the time it takes for the sound wave to come back, the deeper the water. The accuracy is limited and sometimes inaccurate.
4. Multibeam echosounders are more effective because they provide angular resolution,, the ability to measure different angles. Meaning a single feature for the seafloor.
5. Many things have been discovered thanks to bathymetric technology, for example, thousands of seamounts were discovered in the central Pacific Ocean.
6. Bathymetric measurements support safe navigation & protect marine environments. They can predict strengths of tsunamis.
Taking this Marine Science Exam Final taught me to be extra careful when taking exams no matter how confident I am about the material. I did not realize that I had skipped a question I knew the answer to until I got my test back. Skipping this question made me realize that it is important to go back and revise your test once you are done, in order to get the best score possible. I was in shock when I got my test back and realized that I skipped a question because that is something that I usually never do. Skipping this question could have been catastrophic because I could have started marking down the correct answers for the wrong questions. Although this was a possibility, it could have all been avoided by going back and revising my test.
First carried out by Posidonius with a rope and a rock. then they started using sound pulses or echo sounders. Now scientists use multibeam echo sounder systems & satellite altimetry.
We would be able to locate an active margin around the Pacific. We can locate a passive margin on the Atlantic.
A shallow, nearly flat continental shelf close to shore. Slope seaward which is steeply sloped. Continental rise, an apron of sediment that blends the continental margins into the deep-ocean basins.
Acrostic Poem: Continental Margins